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This fundamental socio-economic inequality is reinforced not only by the operation of market forces but also by a range of official policies regarding the availability of rented accommodation in the form of council housing social housing and the rationalization of public service provision throughout Britain, in rural and urban areas alike.

Following the Housing Act of tenants of council housing became entitled to purchase their homes at discounted prices that were substantially below the market rate Dunn et al. At the same time,. What has happened is that the best council houses in the countryside have been purchased eagerly by their occupants, leaving a reduced and diminishing stock of less desirable, poor quality dwellings for those households that need to rent social housing.

Not surprisingly, this process has worked to the disadvantage of the less financially privileged in the countryside, namely young couples, those who are unemployed, and those who hold poorly- paid jobs or have retired from them and are living on basic old-age pensions provided by the State. In most rural areas purchase of housing is well beyond the financial reach of such people.

Green Infrastructure in the United Kingdom

In any case, house prices have been inflated in most parts of the British countryside by the demands of middle-class urban families seeking property to which to retire, to enjoy as a second home, to use as a coun- terurbanization "refuge", or from which to commute long distances to work each day. The provision of services throughout rural Britain is being "rationalized" i.

The stark truth is that 70 per cent of rural households have at least one car apiece and can drive considerable distances to purchase goods and obtain educational, medical, professional and other services. Faced with this situation, village shops, small garages, isolated public houses and many other commercial outlets are being forced to close since a sizeable proportion of their local clientele take their custom to the nea-.

Area, 17, pp. Area, 16, pp. BEST, R. Town Planning Review, 50, pp. London, Methuen. BIRD, S. Sociologia Ruralis, 22, pp.

Figure 4: Green belt areas close to transport

London, Longman. Transactions, Institute of British Geographers, 1 , pp. Chichester, Wiley. Norwich, GeoBooks. Regional Studies, 11, pp. Geography, 70, pp. Regional Studies, 16, pp. DEAN, K. Geoforum, 15, pp.


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Regional Studies, 12, pp. DUNN, M. London, Allen and Unwin. Sociologia Ruralis, 20, pp. Town and Country Planning, 50, pp. Area, 14, pp. HALL, P. London, Harper and Row. Professional Geographer, 36, pp. Regional Studies, 20, pp. Town and Country Planning, 48, pp. KNOX, P.

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A welfare approach to rural geography: contrasting perspectives on the quality of Highland life. Transactions, Institute of British Geographers, 6, pp. Tijdschrift voor Economi- sche en Sociale Geografie, 72, pp.

LAW, CM. Transactions, Institute of British Geographers, 41, pp. Geografiska Annaler, 58B, pp. The Changing Geography of the United Kingdom. C, , London's Green Belt.

SDGs: Indicator 11.3.1

London, Croom Helm. PAHL, R. Harmondsworth, Penguin. Oxford, Blackwell. REES, G.

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London, Edward Arnold. Transactions, Institute of British. Oxford, Pergamon. Migrations de retraite, Grande-Bretagne, Emploi agricole. Plan Urban concentration: rural depopulation [link] The containment and dispersion of urban britain [link] Few rural dwellers work on farms [link] Processes of change in the s [link] The impact of counterurbanization in truly rural areas [link] Retirement migration [link] The repopulating countryside: an arena of unequal opportunity [link] References [link]. Liste des illustrations Figure 1. Population Change in England and Wales during the s [link] Figure 2.

Aspects of Population Change in England and Wales a population decrease, ; b increase of 10 per cent and over, ; c total change, ; d total change, [link] Table 1. Population Change in Great Britain, [link] Figure 5. Regional Population Change [link]. However the expression of British urbanization has changed profoundly in recent decades, bringing new housing and rapid population growth to several types of rural area, while emptying inner-city districts of inhabitants and traditional employment opportunities Herington, ; Rees and Lambert, Population Change in England and Wales during the s Figure 1.

Stamp's massive Land Utilization Survey was undergoing changes that were to be magnified in the years to come. The containment and dispersion of urban britain Once the traumatic experiences of the Second World War and the subsequent recovery years were over, roughly similar trends of population redistribution reappeared. In addition, more people were taking holidays 22 Figure 2. Aspects of Population Change in England and Wales a population decrease, ; b increase of 10 per cent and over, ; c total change, ; d total change, Figure 2.

By contrast, rural Wales, the Pennines and a scatter of other rural districts were still losing inhabitants Champion, Few rural dwellers work on farms At the end of the Second World War Britain had contained approximateley , farm units. The importance of full- time male workers has declined sharply, but seasonal and casual workers and woman play far more significant roles Table 1. In 1 95 1 these areas had contained 20 per cent of the British total roughly 9,, people and 23 per cent Table 1 Farm Units and Agricultural Labour in Britain Table 1.

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Population Change in Great Britain, Figure 5. The framework of administrative units was changed subsequently but a reasonable estimate for the early s would be a quarter of the 25 pie living in rural Britain Moseley, In short, agriculture employs a small and still diminishing share of the rising number of people who live in country national population about 13,, peo- areas. Processes of change in the s A range of complex and sometimes conflicting processes have operated beneath this broad trend of population growth in the countryside Bryant, Russwurm and McLellan, ; Cloke, ; Dean, a and b; Lewis and Maund, During the s the total population of Britain rose by a modest Table 2 Regional Population Change Table 2.

This was particularly pronounced in the early s Champion, The impact of counterurbanization in truly rural areas In many respects these features represented a logical extension of the trends that had been identified in the s and in earlier decades. Such place-specific innovations could not, of course, account for population growth during the s in truly rural districts of Wales or northern England nor, indeed, in remote areas of Scotland far from oil- related activities.

The existence of large landed esta- 27 tes in Highland Scotland restricted their opportunity to enter farming Bird, Repopulation in the Orkney Isles - as in many other remote areas - involves not only former migrants returning to their rural roots and an inflow of professionals e. Retirement migration Migration by retired people to coastal resorts and to attractive stretches of countryside forms another malor contributory process behind rural repopulation.

In absolute terms the number of pensioners rose from 8,, to 9,,; and, of course, the proportion of the total population aged 75 years or more also increased during the s from 4. Surplus capital resulting from this kind of transaction pro- 28 vides a welcome supplement to a couple's savings and retirement pensions. Nonetheless, when both partners remain in reasonably good health and when at least one of them is able to drive, the problems of rural living late in life are perhaps not too great.

The arrival of sizeable numbers of retired couples, with ready capital from the sale of their urban home, serves to inflate house prices in desirable rural areas and may easily raise them above 29 the level that young couples embarking on marriage can possibly afford.

In a rather similar fashion, once a district acquires the reputation of being a "retirement area" this may well dissuade new factory enterprises from moving in to provide employment for those people of working age who do remain. The repopulating countryside: an arena of unequal opportunity Latest annual statistics suggest that the rate of "rural renaissance" experienced in the s has slowed down considerably in the s. However, emissions from fossil fuels used along the production pathway of algal biofuel would need to be considered in any LCA of the airquality impacts of different algal biofuel designs.

Further, how algal biofuels will be scaled up and how air quality might change with increasing scale is uncertain. The committee is not aware of any measured emissions of atmospheric pollutants from algal biofuel feedstock ponds published in the literature. Under normal running conditions in open ponds, the cultures are aerobic, and low emissions of volatile organic compounds VOCs are expected Rasmussen, ; A. However, macroalgae and microalgae growing in natural marine environments are known to be important sources of VOCs, including isoprene and monoterpenes Giese et al.

Three of the species tested are being grown for biofuels in open raceways, open ponds, and closed photobioreactors, with test samples derived from cultures being grown in treated wastewater with CO 2 enrichment. In preliminary findings, 45 VOCs have been identified P. Other emissions expected are aerosols that may be emitted directly or created in the atmosphere through reactions of gaseous emissions of precursor gases of sulfur dioxide SO 2 , nitrogen oxides NOx , NH 3 , and VOCs.

Aerosols could include algae and nutrients, as well as a wide range of compounds that are produced by microalgae, including toxins. See section Pathogens and Toxins later in this chapter. Microalgae in the natural marine environment are known sources of sulfate aerosols for example, Liss et al. A large number of algae produce odorous secondary metabolites reviewed in Smith et al. The odors are produced during aerobic growth as secondary metabolites.